Syrian crisis enters its 14th year... Reasons exist for continued suffering (1)

The Syrian crisis, which began on March 15, 2011 with a popular movement before deviating from its course, is still without any solution on the horizon, and as a result, the humanitarian, economic, and living suffering of Syrians is increasing.

Syrian crisis enters its 14th year... Reasons exist for continued suffering (1)
14 March 2024   04:08

During the past years, the Syrians witnessed many developments and events, and there were many factors and reasons that led to the deepening of the Syrian crisis, including the authority’s adherence to the option of excluding all opinions and forces, in addition to the hardening of the so-called opposition and its transformation into a tool and mercenaries at the hands of the Turkish occupation.

On the other hand, there was a different path in North and East Syria, as the Democratic Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria, despite the smear campaigns, turned into an area of attraction for various Syrians and the world, so the two conflicting parties seek to rule the country to eliminate this administration.

In this two-part report, we will briefly summarize the course of the Syrian crisis, from its inception in 2011 until it entered its 14th year.

Starting from southern Syria

As the winds of the so-called “Arab Spring” spread, the Syrians launched their popular movement on March 15, 2011, starting in Daraa in the south, following the uprising against the Damascus government because it arrested some children for writing statements opposing it.

These demonstrations quickly expanded, as the city of Homs and the Damascus countryside witnessed huge demonstrations that were met with violence by Damascus government forces. Which led to a number of casualties, and the Syrian movement entered a new bloody phase, after Damascus government forces entered the city of Homs and more casualties fell.

An early failure of diplomacy and the search for a military solution

At the beginning of 2012, the Arab League entered to resolve the crisis and presented an initiative that included the formation of a national government, with Bashar al-Assad later handing over all his powers to his deputy in cooperation with this government. However, the Damascus government rejected this. Which led to an increase in the level of violence.

In March of the same year, the Damascus government directed its military arsenal to Homs, attacked the Baba Amr neighborhood and declared control over it after fierce fighting that lasted for nearly 26 days. In July, the Syrian crisis took another turn after Damascus government television announced the killing of Defense Minister Daoud. Rajha, his deputy Asif Shawkat, and Hassan Turkmani, Bashar al-Assad’s deputy, in a bombing that targeted the “Syrian National Security” building in the Rawda neighborhood in Damascus.

Turkey floods Syrian cities with mercenaries

Despite the advances achieved by the armed groups over the Damascus government and their entry into many cities, Damascus has changed its strategy and plans. To escape exhaustion, it concentrated its control on strategically important cities that it called “Useful Syria.” However, Iranian support and the sending of Shiite groups, including the Lebanese Hezbollah, as well as the growth of mercenary groups such as the Jabhet al-Nusra and ISIS, constituted an added burden on the movement in Syria.

Turkey opened its airports to receive mercenaries from all over the world, facilitated their crossing into Syrian territory, and transformed its borders into crossings through which weapons flowed to mercenaries in Syria, and provided all forms of material, moral, and medical support to them. As for Iran, it mobilized the Shiites wherever they were, and sent them to Syria to fight alongside the Damascus government.

ISIS to the forefront

With the increasing arrival of foreign mercenaries from all over the world and the use of sectarian and nationalist tensions in the region as a means of recruiting militants, ISIS mercenaries occupied large areas of Syria and Iraq in the summer of 2014, starting with Mosul in Iraq at the beginning of June, then the city of Raqqa, which it declared the capital of its alleged caliphate on June 29. .

It also occupied the vast majority of Deir ez-Zor, in addition to its presence in Aleppo, Idlib, Hama, the Damascus countryside and a number of other Syrian regions, thus occupying nearly half of Syria’s area.

Russia intervenes to save the Damascus government from collapse

In 2014, the Damascus government forces witnessed a major collapse, as mercenary groups, especially the Jabhet al-Nusra , occupied large areas of Aleppo, Idlib, Hama, Daraa, Homs, and Quneitra, and the presence of the Damascus government forces was limited to the main cities only.

As a result, Russia intervened and signed an agreement with Damascus, in August 2015, granting the right to Russian military forces to use the Hmeimim base at any time, free of charge, and for an indefinite period. Starting in September 2015, Russia strengthened its military presence in Syria.

A different path in North and East Syria... a social contract and elections

In conjunction with the collapse witnessed by the Damascus government forces and their withdrawal from the Syrian regions, leaving the people an easy prey to mercenaries, especially ISIS and Jabhet al-Nusra, the People’s and Women’s Protection Units YPG-YPJ took upon themselves the task of preserving the three autonomous administration cantons that were announced in Rojava, in January 2014, which are: Jazira, Afrin and Kobani cantons, so that this administration will expand to include the regions of North and East Syria.

The Autonomous Administration worked to implement the theory of the democratic nation and the brotherhood of peoples, as it was able to bring together all components of the region and strengthened civil peace. It was also able to preserve and develop vital Syrian facilities by forming civil institutions that relied on implementing the societal economy and providing basic services to citizens. It also strengthened the role of women through... Implementing a system of co-chairmanship for each institution and body, in addition to continuing to develop political and social work through the implementation of a new social contract that will be followed by elections during the coming period.

US forces are officially in Syria

Since the beginning of the Syrian crisis, the United States of America has searched for Syrian armed groups and tested some armed groups. On March 4, a group of 50 people, equipped with all types of modern weapons from the 51st Brigade, arrived in Syria after receiving training within the framework of the American program to train the “armed opposition.” Through the Bab al-Salama crossing in the city of Azaz, members of this group were killed within a few days, while others fled and surrendered themselves to ISIS mercenaries along with their weapons.

However, the American administration was monitoring the competence of the People’s Protection Units and the Women’s Protection Units YPG-YPJ in fighting ISIS. Therefore, after announcing the formation of the Global Coalition to Defeat ISIS in 2014, the Global Coalition Forces were forced to: To provide air support to the People’s and Women’s Protection Units, especially in the Battle of Kobani, in September 2014, and this support would continue later until the announcement of the formation of the Syrian Democratic Forces and until now.

The Syrian Democratic Forces liberated all of North and East Syria from ISIS, and the most prominent areas that were liberated were: These are Manbij, Raqqa, Deir ez-Zor, and all the way to Baghouz, where it was announced that the physical “caliphate” of ISIS had been eliminated.

The Astana Pact divides Syrian territory into areas of influence

After a rift that lasted more than half a year, during which the Damascus government and its supporters (referring to the Russians) were described as criminals, Erdogan apologized for shooting down the Russian plane and expressed his sadness. Thus, he sided with the Russians and wanted to achieve his ambitions in Syria through the Russian gate, while Russia sought to exploit Turkey. ; To stop the support provided to its affiliated groups, which will enable it to strengthen the Damascus government.

At the end of 2016, Russian President Vladimir Putin announced from Japan that he agreed with Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan about the Syrian peace talks, and said that they agreed to continue the talks in the Kazakh capital, Astana.

21 rounds of Astana were held by these countries (Russia - Turkey - Iran), starting from January 23 - 24, 2017 until December 25, 2024; To discuss the Syrian crisis without the presence of those responsible for the crisis, but the objectives and results of the discussions were clear, which is the continuation of the Russian-Turkish understandings, and attacking the project of Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria.

Turkey took advantage of this agreement to occupy Afrin, Serêkaniyê, Girê Spi, and parts of the countryside of Idlib, Latakia, and Aleppo. In return, Russia enabled the Damascus government to control large areas of Syria.


We will highlight the failure of international meetings and platforms to provide solutions to the Syrian crisis, in addition to the paths of rapprochement between Damascus and the Turkish occupation, and Arab normalization with the Damascus government, in addition to the deterioration of living conditions in the areas of the Damascus government and what caused the outbreak of the popular movement again.

T/ Satt.