Syrian crisis enters its 14th year... Reasons exist for continued suffering-2-

In light of the failure of the international community to resolve the Syrian crisis, and the deterioration of the living and economic situation of Syrians in the areas of the Damascus government, the Syrian crisis is heading to continue, and what confirms this is the return of protests and popular movement in southern Syria and in Suwayda in particular.

Syrian crisis enters its 14th year... Reasons exist for continued suffering-2-
15 March 2024   03:04

In this second part of the Syrian crisis report, we highlight the failure of international meetings and platforms to provide solutions to the Syrian crisis, in addition to the paths of rapprochement between Damascus and the Turkish occupation, and Arab normalization with the Damascus government, in addition to the deterioration of living conditions in the areas of the Damascus government, and what caused the outbreak of the popular movement again.

Meetings and platforms did not provide anything for the Syrians

There have been many international initiatives regarding the political settlement of the conflict in Syria, without any of them resulting in a political solution. Therefore, the survival and continuation of the conflict until the factors for the political settlement crystallize and mature have become a reality reflected in the major powers’ dealings with the crisis.

The Geneva talks, during which Kofi Annan, Lakhdar Brahimi, and Staffan de Mistura gave up their duties as UN envoys, were not possible, and someone other than Pedersen later took over. A mission that has not yet achieved tangible results, although each round ends with a set of decisions that are not implemented on the ground.

The first round began on June 30, 2012, at the invitation of the UN envoy to Syria, Kofi Annan, and the Action Group for Syria, but it failed for several reasons. The most important of which is the failure to invite representatives of the Syrian people and the differences between the parties concerned in the crisis over the interpretation of the terms of the agreement.

The Sochi Conference for Syrian Dialogue was also held on January 30, 2018, in the middle of a western boycotting and a number of active political parties and entities on the Syrian scene, and in the presence of a number of representatives of mercenaries linked to Turkey and representatives of the Damascus government.

After more than a year and a half of consultations, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, António Guterres, announced on September 23, 2019, the formation of the so-called “Constitutional Committee”, which was decided to be formed at the Sochi Conference under Russian, Turkish and Iranian sponsorship, and Geneva turned into the headquarters for the “Constitutional Committee” meetings.

Over the course of about four years of the committee’s life, and eight rounds of its meetings, its three parties - the Damascus government, the so-called opposition and civil society - did not succeed in writing a single constitutional article. UN envoy Geir Pedersen was scheduled to visit Damascus in the last half of February to discuss Hold a new round for this committee.

The popular movement begins again from southern Syria

With the success of the Democratic Autonomous Administration DAA project in the North and East Syria, the people of Suwayda tried to follow the same path, and were able to some extent to limit the role of the Damascus government forces and its authorities, as the youth of the region refrained from joining the compulsory military service, and local forces and some political councils and offices were formed, causing... This resulted in clashes between the people of Suwayda and the security services affiliated with the Damascus government.

In July 2018, the region witnessed a bloody attack carried out by ISIS mercenaries, as they kidnapped 36 civilians, including women and children, and killed more than 250 people, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. Figures and forces from Suwayda accuse the Damascus government of being behind the attack, after it turned a blind eye to the mercenaries running convoys from the countryside of Damascus to the region after they withdrew from there; Following the advance of the Damascus government forces, which prompted many to talk about a deal between Damascus and ISIS.

The demonstrations in Suwayda took on a continuing nature, and this also coincided with the announcement by civil society forces and the Syrian Brigade Party, forming local management committees to carry out the work of some service institutions, and those in charge of this work say that this is a prelude to developing the movement and organizing it better during the coming period.

A slow rapprochement between Damascus and the Turkish occupation

The Syrian crisis witnessed an important turning point during the year 2022, as despite the years of hostility between Damascus and Ankara and the latter’s occupation of many Syrian lands, a path of rapprochement was launched between the two parties after the Tehran summit, which was attended by representatives of Astana on July 19, 2022, and the presidents of Russia and Turkey met in Moscow on August 6. The head of the occupying state, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, revealed that his counterpart, Vladimir Putin, offered him during the talks a solution to the crisis, in cooperation with the Damascus government, and the defense ministers of Russia, Turkey, and Damascus later met in Moscow, but these meetings; It has not taken on a political character yet, and there is talk of the difficulty of completing the path of rapprochement between the two parties during the current circumstances.

Arab normalization with Damascus without results

During the last years of the Syrian crisis, Russia sought to break the Arab isolation imposed on the Damascus government, and focused its attempts on the Gulf states and Jordan. As a result, there were contacts with Jordan and the Emirates, and Bashar al-Assad visited the Emirates on March 18, 2022, in his first move to an Arab country since the Syrian war that broke out in 2011.

This path accelerated after the devastating earthquake that occurred on February 6, 2023, as most Arab countries made contact with the Damascus government and sent humanitarian aid. Al-Assad also visited the Sultanate of Oman for the first time, and Russian efforts were crowned with success in returning the Damascus government to the Arab League, but without any this is a reflection of the Syrian reality, especially from a political and economic perspective, as observers believe that Damascus was unable to satisfy the Arab countries, especially with regard to reducing cooperation with Iran, in addition to American opposition to this rapprochement.

The deterioration of living and economic conditions increases the suffering of Syrians

Despite the efforts of the Damascus government to impose its control over the Syrian regions and normalize its relations with the outside world, it failed to alleviate the living and economic suffering of the Syrians, which has become burdensome on them. At the beginning of 2023, the price of the Syrian pound against the dollar began at around 7,000 pounds, and continued at this level with a decline. Slightly throughout the first quarter of the same year, the lira began to depreciation in May. Its value decreased from 8,500 to 10,000 against the dollar in mid-July, continuing its collapse to reach approximately 15,000 against one dollar.

The Damascus government deepened this suffering by resorting to raising the prices of consumer goods, bread, fuel, foodstuffs, and medicines. The streets of Syrian cities under the control of the Damascus government, including the streets of the capital, witnessed a fuel, bread, and other crisis.

T/ Satt.