The Foreign Relations Committee has issued a statement appealing to Trump to impose sanctions on Turkey in accordance with US laws.
The statement added that Turkey can best achieve its interests through cooperation with the United States, not the Kremlin.
Washington sees the danger that Russian missiles will allow the breach of the technological secrets of the new US F-35, which Turkey also wants to supply.
US President Donald Trump said earlier that he was not considering sanctions against Turkey at the moment, because of the purchase of Ankara system.
Washington has opposed Turkey's purchase of Russia's missile defense system and has threatened sanctions against Ankara and since then President Donald Trump's position on the move has not been clear.
Several Republican and Democratic lawmakers have pressured Trump to impose sanctions on Turkey over the deal.
In a related context, the Russian news agency (RIA Novosti) quoted a Russian official as saying on Wednesday that Russia and Turkey are discussing the possibility of delivery of military aircraft of the type SU-57 and SU-35 Russian-made to Turkey.
"A lot of interest has been shown, it is too early to talk about contract negotiations, and there has been no request so far, and consultations must be held," said Dimitry Shogayev, head of the Federal Service for Military Technical Cooperation.
US law authorizes the executive to impose sanctions on certain defense deals with Russia under legislation called the US Enemy of Casta.
The Pentagon earlier announced the start of the exclusion phase of Turkey's program to produce F-35s because of its purchase of S-400.
The US administration has threatened to exclude Turkey from the program of F-35 fighter jets, if they get the S-400 system from Russia.