Iraq is a bloody sample of long Ottoman torment
As soon as the Ottomans came to the land, they searched for tricks to justify their massacres against the peoples of the region where they pursued targeting the minorities and other communities. In Iraq, they targeted the Shiites.
The Ottomans and their filthy wars... More than 40,000 victims
The crimes of the Ottoman Empire which were committed against the Shiites increased when Salim I announced the sectarian war on the Shiites in Iraq after he issued fatwas of their being blasphemers and the permissibility to kill them as more than forty thousand were killed except for those who were put in jails.
The Ottomans, especially the governor of Baghdad Omer Pasha who robbed their strength and made their lives difficult, followed this policy. They also had a hand in the barbaric attack of the Wahhabis on Karbala city in 1882 as the facts proved the facilitation of the entry of the Wahhabis into the city which took place during their reign. The Wahhabis were given the green light to kill everybody there, and demolish and burn the honorable tomb.
One of the most terrible crimes committed by the Ottomans against the Shiites is Najib Pasha's incident in Karbala in 1258 H / 1842 AD when this city revolted against the oppressive Ottoman policy so Najib Pasha who was known for his passion for shedding blood besieged it and bombarded it with cannons until he could enter it with his army as killing, looting and destruction spread until its land was stained with blood.
After the end of the rule of the Mamluks, the Ottoman government appointed Ali Reda Pasha to be the Wally on Baghdad. He ruled from 1247-1258 H / 1831-1842 AD. This governor doubled the taxes that were collected from the people of Karbala to twice, and attacked it several times, but the people defended it.
The great historian Abdul-Razzaq al-Husni summed up these incidents from an anonymous author's manuscript in his library which he called "The Brotherhood's Trip in the Incident of Thirsty, Killed's Country", and dated its beginning on 15 Ramadan 1241 H. These incidents were:
1- Al-Qantara Incident: The brigade was a man named Darwish. In this incident, eighteen soldiers with four mares of them, and four men from Karbala were killed.
2- Al-Mushmush (Apricot) Incident: It was called this name because the Ottoman soldiers entered the orchards of the city and began to plunder the apricots from them at the time when the people went out to collect them, while the two sides fought in al-Juayba, and Karbala people defeated their opponents as well.
3- Al-Hayabi Incident: It was the most severe incidents. The fighting has continued for long hours and heavy losses were inflicted to both sides. The Ottoman campaign on the city was repelled which led to the injury of its leader and this made Dawood Pasha to send to the Emir of his stable Suleiman Makhor to conquer Karbala people, and this leader was expert on fighting skills and led many battles successfully. He led a large force equipped with cannons and bombs estimated at 1,500 soldiers. When the force reached the outskirts of Karbala, it camped in the heat at a distance of five kilometers, and cut off water from the city. When it began to attack, Karbala people repelled and fought fiercely, and many killed from both sides were left.
4- Al-Atwab (Bricks) or Bachia Incident: She was a woman who was intensifying the rebels' determination, and the number of bombs thrown by the Ottoman army's artillery was between forty and sixty bombs, but they did not lead to an outcome.
5- Al-Khimgah (Camp) Incident: This was called so because the army's commander took the position of the camp as headquarters for his horse and most of his soldiers, and distributed the rest of his troop to various places. When his forces attacked the people, those fought them courageously, and four killed of them were lost after they inflicted heavy losses to the Ottoman forces.
6- Al-Bardiya Incident: The people attacked the Ottomans and took over a number of the soldiers' horses, rifles and cannons.
7- The Security Incident: This was called so because the commander of the soldiers resorted to the trick to get fed up with Karbala people and their wars so he announced the security in the name of the governor Dawood Pasha. Let bygones be bygones, the people were optimistic for this result, but he surprised the city at night with a barrage of bombs, and the people gathered, defended the city and managed to defeat the army despite its superiority regarding the number and the equipment.
Karbala and Ottoman arrogance which destroyed the hearts of its people
These events led the Ottomans to increase their arbitrariness and tyranny. They imposed on Karbala city to supply the military governmental garrison in al-Musayyib in 1258 AH / 1842 AD, the year that Muhammed Najib Pasha replaced Ali Reda Pasha over the rule of Iraq, and when al-Manakhor Incident took place. The residents refused to supply the garrison for the city to declare its rejection of the Ottoman policy.
Najib Pasha was close to al-Sultan, and he was very cruel in his actions. When he knew that all the campaigns carried out before had not subjected the city to the unjust Ottoman policy, he decided in the second year of his rule in 1843 AD to subjugate the city by force.
The first military action to extinguish the revolution led by Saadullah Pasha was in 21/11/1842 AD, but this attack did not result in anything, causing Najib Pasha to lead the attack himself, and asked the rebels to hand over their weapons and end the revolution. They decided to open the doors of the city on the second day, but some of al-Rushti's opponents incited the rebels not to bow.
On the second day, the Ottoman forces attacked the city and demolished the walls. Muhammed Zerndi said in his book "Matal-ul-Anwar" that the city witnessed killing and looting operations and the people fled to the graves of the Imam Hussein and his brother Abbas. Others fled to the house of al-Rushti. The refugees' number increased so that al-Rushti was obliged to add the next houses to his home to accommodate more refugees. The crowds rushed to his home, and after the calm of the situation, they found twenty people died in the result of the overcrowding.
The force imposed a large siege on the city which was crowded with visitors, surrounded its tight walls, restricted the population until they had to drink the water of the wells and resort to the rationing of the distribution of livelihood.
The siege lasted for twenty-three days. When people felt the impact of the siege, the heads and leaders met and deliberated the situation despite the ideological divisions among them. The opinion based on the surrender of the rebels, but the leader of the campaign refused to surrender except under conditions rejected by the people of Karbala.
After a fierce resistance made by the people, the Ottoman forces took control of the situation. The rebels retreated, and a large number of them took refuge in the graves of the Imam Hussein and his brother Abbas. The government's forces began to loot, pillage and sabotage, and the soldiers of Karbala spent three to five hours wasting much of the innocents' blood of the sheikhs and children.
Najib Pasha entered the city from the door of Baghdad. On the second day, the governor returned and ordered his caller to be safe. He asked about Mr. Wahhab al-Kalidar, and they told him that he had fled so he removed him and replaced him with al-Hajj Mahdi Kamouna. Then, he pulled out a piece of paper from his pocket in which the names of the demanded to the Ottoman government were written, asked to search for them and deliver them.
There were different stories about the number of the killed among Karbala people, and the money and jewelry lost during the conquest of the city. Mr. Hussein al-Buraqi said in his book "Al-Dar al-Manthor" (The Scattered House) that 24,000 were killed among them men, women and children, including those who were crushed with legs.
Safar Berlek, a sample of long Ottoman torment
As all the Arab countries, Iraq suffered from the so-called the violations of the Ottoman Safar Berlek which Adonis said in his book "Ghobar al-Mudun Bo's al-Tarikh" (The Cities' Dust Is the Misery of History) that starting from the Ottoman caliphate until today, predecessors of all ours died, being forcibly joined in wars that were not theirs to defend issues that were not theirs. Safar Berlek is not only its sample as it connects this long torment of the Ottoman Turkish rule of the region and the models of torment left behind.
The famous Iraqi writer Abboud al-Shalji (1326-1416 AH) talks in his book "Al-Baghdadi Colloquial Pseudonyms" saying, "Safar Berlek is a Baghdadi pseudonym for the days of oppression and destruction. The word is Turkish, Safar Berlek means the general alarm. The Baghdadi people want with this pseudonym the general alarm declared by the Ottoman government in the World War I as the Ottomans mobilized thousands of Iraqi soldiers of the finest young people of Iraq, and took them to the Caucasus Front, where they suffered from starvation and coldness. Safar Berlek left in every Iraqi house grief and sadness."
The occupation of Iraq through military bases
Now, Turkey occupies parts of the Iraqi territories through the establishment of military bases. There are 14 Turkish military bases and 4 Turkish Intelligence bases in the areas controlled by the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP) in Kurdistan Region. Recently, Turkey has occupied Bashika in al-Mosul governorate, and established a military base there in conjunction with IS' occupation of the area. The military base has played a major role in supplying IS with information during their attacks on the Iraqi cities.