Kurdish Language ... development after repression - 3

After the Kurds in Syria have been exposed through decades to the policies of repression and attempts of annihilation in the crucible of Arab society; however, with the beginning of the revolution, the Kurds were able to develop the Kurdish language, and within a few years, they made great steps on the path of development.

 

Kurdish language revolution in Syria
The Kurdish intellectual class suffered two things under the Baathist regime, in addition to the systematic policies to fuse society, but everything has changed since the start of Rojava revolution. In the last part of this file, we will review the movement of Kurdish intellectuals in Syria in light of changes and developments since the year 2003, up to Rojava revolution..

Samira Haj Ali, the former co-chair of the Education Body in al-Jazeera region says, "The Arab Belt Project presented by Mohammed Taleb Hilal, the head of the Political Security Section Branch in al-Hasakah governorate in 1963 had a great impact on the Kurdish people and the Kurdish language, where the aim was to fuse the Kurdish community in the Arab society. "

However, in the fall of 2003, the Syrian city of al-Raqqa witnessed the first meeting of a group of Kurdish intellectuals with the aim of establishing a body responsible for teaching the Kurdish language. At that time, the foundations were put forward for forming the Kurdish Language Foundation, and among those who were present at that meeting were Dahham Abdel-Fattah, Bashir Mulla Nawaf, Dr. Mamo, Badran Naber.

In this context, Samira Haj Ali says that this meeting was attended by about 35 Kurdish intellectuals, in which the work was approved for teaching the Kurdish language. She confirmed the exposure of the participants in the meeting to arrest and prosecution by the Baathist regime which forced a number of them to leave the country.

In 2008, the second meeting of the same group was held in Kobane city, to which more intellectuals joined. In 2009, the third meeting was held in Aleppo. The fourth meeting was held in 2012 after the outbreak of the Spring of Peoples revolutions in the region, and Syria was affected by them from 15 March 2011.

Besides the work of the Kurdish Language Foundation, there were groups of Kurdish intellectuals affiliated with political parties - whose influence was weak - that taught the Kurdish language at homes, but did not do much for the Kurdish language, compared to the role of the Kurdish Language Foundation which had been operating secretly for a long time.

On the role of the Kurdish Language Foundation since its first meeting in 2003, Gulê Hassen, the member of the Kurdish Language Foundation's Department of Studies and Research said: "At a stage in which the Kurdish language had to be preserved, these meetings were held, and the focus was on the children need to learn the modern Kurdish in their mother tongue. Despite all the pressures, this method achieved success, and in the period between 2003 – 2009, there was a group of Kurdish teachers teaching various groups of the Kurdish community to read and write in the Kurdish language in Latin letters. This paved the way for the presence of a number of Kurdish intellectuals who are proficient in reading and writing in Kurdish, and those who are able to teach in schools with the beginning of the revolution in Syria. "

For her part, Samira Haj Ali says: "The revolution in the Kurdish language started in Syria with the revolution of July 19th, 2012, and here began the opening of small schools to teach the Kurdish language.

She added: "On November 11th, 2012, we made the decision to formally teach the Kurdish language in primary schools, three classes per week, and the number of teachers at that time was very little."

On this, Gulê Hassen says: "The transition to teaching the Kurdish language in schools was not easy, as this step was very important and difficult, and it took place in stages."

The Kurdish Language Foundation not only undertook the teaching of students in schools, but also worked on preparing a qualified teaching staff capable of teaching various subjects in the Kurdish language through the schools it established in various regions of Rojava that were also responsible for teaching all segments of the Kurdish language.

With the development of the revolution and the Kurdish language, a large number of Kurdish intellectuals and university graduates joined the Kurdish Language Foundation to contribute to the teaching process.

Gulê added: "In the beginning, we used to teach the Kurdish language with what we pick from the books of professors Samitan and Ronahi Onen and the Kurdish language grammar and learning (Hinker). Later, we used Makhmour curricula, and the Kurdish language was taught from the first to the sixth primary grade."

With the announcement of Democratic Autonomous Administration in January 2014, the Kurdish Language Foundation began preparing for the formation of the Democratic Society Training Committee, where the first conference was held in 2015, during which the decision to teach curricula in the Kurdish language was taken from the first to third preparatory grade.

The Autonomous Administration's bodies were also formed, including the Education Body. Here, the teaching process developed and took an organized approach. As a start, the curricula were developed by a specialized committee of 7 persons. As days passed, it developed to a Curricula Preparation Foundation related to the Education Body of North and East Syria. It includes more than a hundred specialists in the three official languages ​​Kurdish, Arabic and Syriac.

Gulê Hassen indicated that the teaching of the Kurdish language occurred in stages, which accompanied the preparation of the curricula. In 2015, teaching the Kurdish curriculum began from the first grade to the third grade, in 2016, it began in the fourth, fifth and sixth classes, in 2017, teaching began in the preparatory classes, in 2018, the tenth grade, and in 2019, the eleventh grade. She said that at this stage there is preparation for universities.

Since 2015, the Kurdish language began to be taught in the institutes for the preparation of teachers in various areas of the Autonomous Administration. In this context, Samira Haj Ali says: "With the development of the curricula, the level of teachers had to be developed. Today and for the same purpose, the institutes for the Kurdish language have been opened, and in a way that prepares teachers better, so that they are able to teach all subjects in the Kurdish language. "

In 2016, Rojava University was opened and included five colleges, and today, it has more than 10 specializations.

The number of schools run by the Education Body of North and East Syria is 2,210, while the number at the beginning was 580, and the number of teachers at the beginning was 4,364, and today their number is more than 18,000 teachers.

The Rojava revolution revived the Kurdish language in Rojava for the identity of an ancient people to foil all attempts of annihilation, but in spite of this, those in charge must pay more attention to this ancient language.

In this, the leader Abdullah Ocalan says in a folder "The Kurdish Cause and the Solution of the Democratic Nation," that language itself means the societal legacy of mentalities, ethics, aesthetics, emotions and thoughts acquired by a community, which is the existence of identity and the moment it is perceived and expressed in terms of meaning and emotion. The community that expresses itself indicates that it possesses the strong pretext for life because the level of advancement of language is the level of progress of life, that is, as much as a society lives up in its mother tongue, it promotes to the same level of life, and the more a society loses its language and falls under the rule of other languages, it is colonized and exposed to fusion and genocide".

ANHA


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