​​​​​​​ From two old friends to two frmidable enemies: U.S.-Iranian relations

 A new crisis has emerged between the United States and Iran, each accuses the other of terrorism.

A new crisis emerged between The United States and Iran on the 2nd of month of this month after the U.S. Air Force carried out a raid targeting the convoy of The Iranian Quds Force commander Qassem Suleimani and the  deputy of the  chairman of the Iraqi  the Popular Mobilization,  Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, killing them on the road from Baghdad International Airport.

The United States stated that it is not seeking war with Iran, saying, "We acted to prevent war, not to declare war."

 The Iranian leadership also said it would respond to the attack and "retaliate."

 The world awaits the next steps from each side, whether it will lead to war in the Middle East or not.

The 444-day crisis between the two states began in 1979, when Khomeini took power in Iran. Since then, the United States has sought put a  limit to  Iran's influence in the Middle East. ...

It is expected for The Middle East region, which is considered a war scene, to witness new developments, and it is useful to learn about the nature of the historic relations between the two states.

 The relationship between Iran and the United States dates back to the 19th century, when Russia and England were Iran's main enemies.

The Persians, who historically controlled extensive areas, lived through the most vulnerable and regressive stages after the collapse of the Empire of the Persian Safavids  in 1769 due to conflicts and internal disputes on power.

 At this stage, Iran lost large areas of control to the Caesarian Russia during the wars of 1804-1813 and 1826-28.

 England allied with Russia against Iran to push it away from its way for colonizing India. After the 1856-57 war, Iran became a semi-Anglo colony, the colonial economic system was established, and England controlled trade in Iran, from the tobacco trade to the oil.

When England was besieging Iran, the United States emerged as a modern power, and to confront its two close  enemy states, Russia and England, Iran opened all its doors with the United States where America has built hundreds of schools, the first medical hospital and college in Iran, and the  Iranian-U.S. relations have been greatly taken roots on both economically and politically. ....

During 1911 and 1922, state funds were handed over to America as "the last doctor to save the patient from death.

 During the first and second world wars, America was Iran's main ally. Because of the close ties between the Soviet Union and Egypt, Syria, and Libya, Iran was a key ally of the United States in the Middle East.

1953: Relations between the two states after 1950

In collaboration with the British intelligence,  CIA brought down the regime of  the Iranian Prime Minister, Mohammed Mosaddegh.

 Mosaddegh had assumed the presidency of the government according to democratic elections, his rule was overthrown by the coup officers, and the pro-American Shah Pahlavi was appointed to the head of the government, Pahlavi was known for his tyranny in power.

 In 2000, U.S. Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright apologized to Iran for her country's contribution to the coup against Mosaddegh. Iran merely denounced and condemned Albright's remarks.

 1957: On March 5, 1957, Shah Reza Pahlavi concluded a nuclear agreement with the United States, with the aim of producing nuclear energy for civilian purposes, under the slogan "Nuclear energy for peace.

: On January 29, 1979, the last Prime Minister of the Shaha Pahlavi era, Shahpur Bakhtiar, announced the cancellation of the agreement with The United States relating to  the construction of two nuclear reactors worth $6.2 billion. 13 days later, the period of the Bakhtiar administration ended. Bachtiar was later assassinated at his home in Paris.

During 1960 and 1980, anti-Pahlavi protests escalated in Iran, putting the country's destinies in the hands of outside powers.

 The Socialists, The Democrats and the Islamists were able to agree on a common denominator and began to prepare for the revolution.

But in 1979, the Islamists liquidated the opposition forces, declared the revolution on their own and took control of power in the country. On February 1st, 1979, after Khomeini's return, and after the pro-American Reza Shah Pahlavi left the country, the country's system of government changed.

A tyrannical Islamic regime was established under the name of the "Iranian Islamic Revolution." With this transformation, a phase of radical change in the balance of power began in the Middle East ..

 During  mullahs' rule, the Iranian regime established an anti-U.S. domestic and foreign policy.

 1979-1981: on November 4th, 1979, students loyal to the Iranian regime raided the American embassy building in Tehran and took 52 diplomats hostage.

The  U.S. President, Roland Reagan and the Iranians held meetings and discussions . in order to pressure Iran, the United States halted the export of Iranian oil and froze Iranian funds worth millions of dollars.

 After a 444-day diplomatic crisis, which entered history as the longest diplomatic hostage crisis, the American diplomats were released under the Algiers Agreement on December 20, 1981.

In return, the United States pledged not to interfere  in the  Iranian political and internal affairs.

 Between 1985 to 1986, discussions and meetings between the United States and Iran were held for  releasing the  U.S. citizens captured by pro-Iranian Lebanese Hezbollah.

 In 1986, the Iran-Contra scandal, in which U.S. weapons were illegally sold to Iran, was uncovered, and the earned money from it, was used to finance the armed groups against the Nicaraguan government that was called Contra. This embarrassed President Reagan, and once again initially denied the agreement, but he came back and publicly acknowledged it on television.

  Between 1980 to 1988, the Iraq-Iran war broke out, and on September 22, 1980, Iraq, under Saddam Hussein's leadership, attacked the Iranian cities of Abadan and Hormşehir. Although the eight-year war, in which no party won, and resulted in the death of at least one million people, America was on Iraq's side against Iran, while Israel supported Iran, while for Arab countries, all of them were on Iraq's side in the war against Iran, except Syria. Libya.

 In 1988, the U.S. warship sank an Iranian ship in Basra Bay, and U.S. forces in the Strait of Hormuz bombed two Iranian oil platforms, Iran responded with the operation of mining the frigate USS Samuel B. Roberts.

Several months later, the United States shot down an Iranian passenger plane carrying 290 people. The U.S. government made it clear that the plane was identified as a warplane and refused to apologize.

2003: The United States, led by George W. Bush, began a war against Iraq under the pretext of possessing chemical weapons. And to overthrow its bloody antagonism Saddam Hussein. The Iranian administration committed itself at the time and agreed to the U.S. war against Iraq, a country where 60 percent of the population has entered a civil war because of differences between Tehran and Washington since the war began.

2011: The people's movements known as The Arab Spring, which began in Syria, quickly became a battlefield that made Iran play an active role in the region. Iran is one of the strongest support for Syrian President Bashar al-Assad, Iran, along with its ally Russia, does not intervene directly with They intervene through groups of militias such as Hezbollah, which have provided logistical support to them, and changed the course of the war. ...

 At this point, Israel has consistently targeted Iran's sites with air strikes. The United States has always expressed dissatisfaction with Iran's presence in the country.

2015: The social and community uprising against the regime, Yemen is one of the countries where this uprising has turned into a civil war. Here, too, Iran and the United States have taken their place on two different fronts. Washington supported the Saudi-led Arab alliance, while Iran sided with the Shiite Houthis, who controlled a large part of the major cities, including the capital, Sana'a. No party has been able to make any progress in the war, which has claimed tens of thousands of lives in addition to millions of displaced people.

2018: U.S. President Donald Trump announced on May 8, 2018, his country's withdrawal from the 2015 nuclear deal with Iran by former U.S. President Barack Obama. Trump then imposed harsh sanctions on Iran, including the energy sector

.  2019: U.S. President Donald Trump's administration announced in April the inclusion of Iran's revolutionary guard in the terrorism list. After this, Iran's Supreme National Security Council listed listed the U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM) on the terrorism list ...

 2020: The United States kille commander of the Quds Force, the commander of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps, Qassem Soleimani, and deputy head of the Popular Mobilization Commission, Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, in Baghdad, Iraq.

Since 1979, Iran has built its administration against the United States, and any disagreement with Washington is undoubtedly beneficial to the mullahs' regime.

The Iranian regime that practicess politics with Russia in parallel is conducting proxy warfare, from Yemen, Syria, the Gulf to Palestine, Iraq, and Afghanistan in many points against the United States.

 Because of The Iranian-American differences, the states and the rich win while the people lose and are exterminated. Because of these differences, the United States sells weapons to oil-rich Gulf states.

 But after the crime in Baghdad, the crisis between the two countries reached its highest level. Soleimani became a symbol of Iran that shows that this operation will not remain unanswered.

  İn  Iraq, which ranks first in the U.S-Iran war, there will be similar stages in the future. The crisis between Iran and the United States will affect religious groups and minorities in Iraq.

A.J

ANHA


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