Ottomans, their Turkish descendants… Policies, massacres against Muslims and Christians-6
NEWS DESK/ Yahya Al Habib
In April 24 of each year, the Armenian, Syriacs, Assyrians and Chaldeans commemorate the anniversary of the genocide committed by the Ottoman authorities against the Christians in the lands of the empire before and after the First World War, which ended with the expulsion of the Assyrians, Syriacs, and Chaldean in the Middle East dispersing them in many countries.
24 April commemorates the Ottoman authorities executed around 250 members of the elite Armenian community (leaders, intellectuals, clerics) in Istanbul, although the killings and deportations took place before that date. For the recognition of the Armenian Genocide, noting that April 24 is remembered as the Day of Remembrance of the Armenian Genocide...
Ottomans’ first massacres against Armenians
The Ottoman army invaded Armenia in the 11th century for the first time. In the 16th century, Armenia became part of the Ottoman Empire. Armenians were divided between the Ottomans and the Russian Empire.
The first tragedies of the Armenians began at the hands of the Ottomans between 1894 and 1896, when the Armenians demanded political reforms, constitutional monarchy, elections and the abolition of discrimination against the Christians of the Sultanate. This angered the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II, who ordered massacres against the Armenians, known as "Hamidiya Massacres". One of the most egregious massacres at the time was the burning of about 2,500 Armenian women in the Cathedral of Urfa.
It is not possible to count the number of people killed in the massacres of 1894-1986, but even before the killings ended, the Lutheran missionary John Lipsius, who was in Turkey at the time, collected the victims from German sources and other sources. Statistics show that 88243 Armenians were killed and 546,000 were injured, and that 2,493 villages were looted. The number of villages that were forced to Islam reached 456 villages, and 649 churches and monasteries were destroyed. 328 churches and monastery were converted into mosques. While other sources say that the number of victims of this massacre amounted to 300 thousand.
Extermination, displacement during the era of the Young Turks Association
After Sultan Abdul Hamid II was deposed by the Young Turks Association, Ottomans attacked Armenians throughout the empire, especially in the present Turkish regions. In just two days, two thousand Armenians were killed in the city of Adana. Armenians in the other regions also had a share of the massacres.
In 1908, the Young Turks Association legitimized the confiscation of Armenians’ property. Prizes were also awarded to those who moved to Armenians’ areas. Thus, the large-scale deportation of Armenians and other Christians began. The Ottomans were transferred to Anatolia region to change its demography.
Secret treaty between Union and Progress, Germany and Armenians pay the price
On August 2, 1914, Turkey signed a secret treaty with Germany, which states that the eastern borders of the Ottoman Empire, which entered World War I along with the Germans on October 30, 1914, would be changed to include a corridor to reach the Muslim communities in Russia. The Ottomans sought to eradicate the Armenians on the border with Russia.
Hours after the secret agreement was signed, the Union announced and promoted public mobilization and began withdrawing the Armenians into the fighting. After the declaration of World War I, Turkey found itself on several fronts. On the Russian-Iranian front, the Ottomans committed major abuses against Armenians. As of April 1915, 5,000 Armenian villages were looted and a total of 27,000 Armenians and many Assyrian, Syriacs, and Chaldeans killed.
On the eastern front Anwar Pasha received a terrible defeat at the Battle of Sarikamish in January 1915, against the Russians. Anwar Pasha told the newspaper Tanin and the Deputy of the prime minister that the defeat was the result of Armenian treachery and that it was time to deport the Armenians from the eastern region. The Ottomans began to strip 100,000 Armenian soldiers of their weapons and confiscated weapons from Armenian civilians who were allowed to carry them. In 1908, after the Armenian soldiers were disarmed, they were slaughtered from the neck or buried alive.
Henry Morgenthau, the US ambassador to Turkey, at the time, described the Armenian disarmament as an invitation to the Armenians to be allowed to be exterminated. In a meeting between Turkish Foreign Minister Talaat Pasha and US Ambassador Henry Morgenthau, Talaat Pasha said: "We managed to get rid of three quarters of the Armenian people, and they no longer have any effect in Badlis, and Erzurum ... the Armenians must be eliminated. They will certainly take revenge on us."
Collecting, displacing the remaining Armenians... massacres in the way of displacement
After these massacres against the Armenians, the remaining Armenians, Syriacs, Assyrians Chaldeans were gathered after their property was stolen and they were deported. They were sent on foot to various parts of the Ottoman Empire to be subjected to starvation or thirst or to acts of piracy by the Bedouins on travelers, in order to disperse them.
According to the document, the Ottomans initially rounded up the men and transferred them to the prisons and liquidated them. The women, children and the elderly were brought along the desert roads in large convoys and those who could not walk were killed. Thousands died during the deportations.
Extermination of more than one million Armenians
The massacres committed by the Ottomans against the Armenians are called "the Armenian Holocaust, the Armenian genocide or the great crime" because the Ottoman killing of the Armenians was deliberate and systematic during and after the First World War. The researchers estimate that the number of Armenians is between 1.5 million, and this made the Armenians a minority and dispersed in neighboring countries.
Organizations and states recognize genocide and Turkey rejects
There are many international organizations that officially recognize the Armenian genocide, including: The United Nations, the European Parliament, the Council of Europe, the World Council of Churches, the Human Rights Organization, the Turkish Human Rights Association, Mercosur and the Young Men's Christian Association.
As well as 20 states: Armenia, Belgium, France, Greece, Vatican, Italy, Switzerland, Argentina, Slovakia, Netherlands, Venezuela, Poland, Lithuania, Chile, Sweden and Bolivia. It is also recognized by 43 US states, regions such as Basque and Catalonia in Spain, newly annexed Crimea to Russia, New South Wales and Australia in Australia, and Quebec in Canada.
Despite all indications of the murder of the Armenians, the Turkish authorities refuse to recognize the Armenian genocide and Article 305 of the Penal Code criminalizes all those who confess.
The Armenian genocide was the first genocide in the 20th century and preceded the genocide committed by the Germans against the Jews during the Second World War, known as the Holocaust. The word genocide was formulated to describe these events. The International Association of Genocide Scholars also launched the Ottoman campaign against the Christian minorities of the Ottoman Empire between 1914 and 1923 by the Turks.
These massacres coincided with the massacres committed by the Ottomans against the Armenians during and after the First World War. The Ottoman Empire targeted the Christians deliberately, killing them, reducing their property and extorting their symptoms, and abandoning them from their areas towards the desert. To die as a result of hunger and thirst and the result of gang attacks on them.
It is said that the Ottoman soldiers were betting on the sex of the fetus inside the womb of the Christian mother before splitting her stomach and thus killing the mother and the fetus together.
There are no accurate statistics on the total number of victims, but scholars estimate the number of Assyrians killed by the Ottoman Empire between 250,000 and 500,000 Assyrians.
Assyrians have become a scattered minority in the region, and many continue to tell the stories of death told to those who survived the Ottoman massacres.
Turkey's threats target Christians again in northeastern Syria
Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, who sees himself as a sultan, threatens to launch genocide attacks on northeastern Syria where Kurds, Arabs, Syriacs, Assyrians, Chaldeans, Armenians and Circassians live.
All these peoples have been massacred by Erdogan's predecessors, and now Erdogan wants to launch attacks against them, to continue the series of killings that his ancestors started against the peoples of the region.